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Commonly used opioid based substance
Oral: Codeine containing cough syrups (Corex),
Cap. Spasmoproxyvon (Dextropropoxyphene phensidyl,)
Raw opium (Afim), khus-khus, poppy seeds
Parenteral (I.V. use): Heroin, Morphine, Pethidine, Buprenorphine (tidigesic, norphine), Pentazocine (fortwin)
Chasing: Heroin (brown sugar)
Symptoms of Opioid intoxication (Overdose)
Euphoria/ Dysphoria , Retardation/Agitation, Impaired judgment , Constricted Pupils, Drowsiness, Dry mouth/nose, Constipation and the most severe is Respiratory Depression to death as well.
Withdrawal Symptoms of Opioid Addiction: Body ache, diarrhea, lacrimation, dilated pupil, insomnia.
We are using two main modalities for the treatment of opioid addiction: Pharmacotherapy and Psychosocial therapy.
A) Pharmacotherapies now available for opioid addiction include
(1) agonist maintenance with methadone;
(2) partial‐agonist maintenance with buprenorphine or buprenorphine plus naloxone;
(3) antagonist maintenance using naltrexone; and
(4) the use of antiwithdrawal (“detoxification”) agents (e.g., methadone, buprenorphine, and/or clonidine) for brief periods, and in tapering doses, to facilitate entry into drug‐free or antagonist treatment.
B) Psychosocial approaches, mutual‐help programs and 12‐Step‐ or abstinence‐based treatment programs are important modalities in the treatment of addiction to heroin and other opioid, either as stand‐alone interventions or in combination with pharmacotherapy.